Plus and Minus


Plus and Minus is a wonderfully inventive and imaginative visual game created by Italian masters Bruno Munari and Giovanni Belgrano. It consists of 72 cards, with 48 transparent ones that can be superimposed to compose complex images and stimulate a child’s creativity.

In 1968 Munari published Nella nebbia di Milano [The circus in the mist], in which he created fascinating images by using his own way the “see-through“ effect. The bright colours of the circus are preceded and followed by the veiled dullness of Milan’s fog: in this vague environment the blurred outlines of the figures become clear by leafing through the book. Two years later, in 1970, Munari dealt again with the theme of transparency by conceiving with Giovanni Belgrano Più e meno [Plus and minus].

Not a book but a game, composed by several images on transparent backgrounds, which can be superimposed at one’s pleasure by adding or removing them. In these square cards the colour is perfectly balanced with the drawing, and together they simply tell stories, which are bonded together by the imagination of the players: the role of the authors is just to give different suggestions to let the players compose countless stories.

Dimension: 15.5 x 15.5 cm
Languages: Italian, English, French, German, Spanish and Japanese texts
1st edition: 00/2008
Edition: 02/2017
ISBN: EAN 8-033532-910020

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